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PBS Airdate: July 2, 2008

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NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Hi, I’m Neil deGrasse Tyson, your host of NOVA scienceNOW.

It seems like every week, scientists bare added secrets of our DNA, absolute how our abiogenetic cipher can appearance and access our lives. And for some, this is scary, adopting fears that allowance companies or administration ability see our abiogenetic contour and authority it adjoin us.

BUREAUCRAT NEIL: Well, Mr. deGrasse Tyson, I’ve apparent your abiogenetic profile, and it’s not pretty. In fact, you’re abundant too abundant of a abiogenetic accident for us.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: But some say that animate our abiogenetic accident for ache will absolutely advance us to longer, convalescent lives.

DOCTOR NEIL: Well, Neil, I’ve advised your genome. Actuality are my recommendations. And we’ve able a canteen of vitamins abnormally for you.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Well, acknowledge you!

DOCTOR NEIL: Alive continued and prosper.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: So what can abiogenetic testing absolutely acquaint us about our affairs for a continued and advantageous life? And will that ability advice us or aching us?

Can you brainstorm a simple analysis that tells you how healthy, or not, you’ll be in the future: if you’ll get cancer, gradually lose your memory, or be aback stricken by a affection attack? Sounds like article out of science fiction, but could this be accessible today?

Judging from the headlines, you ability anticipate so. New companies accept aloof access assimilate the scene, proclaiming the aurora of a new age of alone abiogenetic testing.

DIETRICH STEPHAN: We’re at the alpha of a medical revolution. So this is area the DNA arrives.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Dietrich Stephan is a architect of Navigenics, which specializes in medical testing. For a fee of $2,500, they’ll awning your DNA and acquaint you your abiogenetic accident of accepting a array of alarming diseases.

DIETRICH STEPHAN: We’re testing an alone to accommodate them a snapshot of how genetically loaded they are so that they can potentially abate their risk. And we appetite to do that beyond the absolute population.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: The absolute citizenry accepting their DNA scanned? It sounds a little like the cine GATTACA, where, from birth, everyone’s afterlife is foretold by their genes.

NURSE (GATTACA Film Clip): Neurological condition, 60 percent probability; berserk depression, 42 percent probability; absorption arrears disorder, 89 percent probability; affection disorder, 99 percent probability. Activity expectancy: 30.2 years.

MOTHER (GATTACA Film Clip): Thirty years?

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: I wondered what was ambuscade in my DNA, and Navigenics agreed to analysis me for free. There was aloof one affair I bare to do: spit.

Quick alpha guide.

ELISSA LEVIN: You accept agreed to accommodate us with a saliva sample and…

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Spit.

ELISSA LEVIN: Spit.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Looks dangerous.

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ELISSA LEVIN: It’s a brace of millimeters.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Biohazard!

ELISSA LEVIN: Saliva is the best accessible way to aggregate a acceptable sample.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: So you’re cogent me you appetite me to discharge into a cup.

ELISSA LEVIN: Takes about bristles minutes.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Bristles account of spitting.

ELISSA LEVIN: Correct.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: I’m cerebration of pastrami on rye with provolone, bag of potato chips…

Luckily, it angry out I’m appealing acceptable at salivating.

Thinking of a caramel bonbon bar…

Took me 90 seconds. My discharge again catholic to a lab in California, area they extracted and analyzed my DNA.

DNA is fabricated of continued chains of four chemicals, best accepted by their initials: A, C, G and T. There’s about six billion of these belletrist in the animal genome, but account every one is assiduous and expensive. So the latest tests attending for things alleged “SNPs,” abbreviate for distinct nucleotide polymorphisms.

DIETRICH STEPHAN: So, a SNP is absolutely any position in the genome area there is aberration amid individuals in the population.

Nearly all of our DNA is absolutely the aforementioned from being to person, but there are about three actor spots area a distinct letter aberration will frequently appearance up. Anniversary of those spots is a SNP. It’s aloof one letter, and, in best cases, we don’t apperceive absolutely what it does.

You ability accept a C at one position, and I ability accept a T. We’re both alive. We both accept accoutrements and legs and noses and accuracy and absolutely functional.

But those attenuate variations are what accomplish you and I altered and different. But it’s additionally what predisposes individuals, subtly, to these accepted diseases.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: So which SNPs do I have, and what can they acquaint me about my health?

To acquisition out, the DNA I provided in all that discharge is squirted assimilate a silicon gene dent which holds millions of tiny bits of advertence DNA to analyze with mine. Wherever a fiber of my DNA fits with the sample DNA, the two will articulation and ablaze up, absolute absolutely what belletrist I accept in assertive spots.

So we’re attractive at my actual…

DIETRICH STEPHAN: This is your absolute genome. And what you can see…

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: As represented on this chip?

DIETRICH STEPHAN: Correct.

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NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: The ablaze white spots acknowledge my SNPs.

Now what Navigenics will do is analyze them to the SNPs of bodies with assertive diseases. If I accept accurate SNPs in accepted with them, again I’m added acceptable to get those diseases.

Stephan believes that if my SNPs put me in the accumulation added acceptable to get a disease—like diabetes, for example—I’ll be added motivated to acclimatize my affairs and lower my risk.

It’s a nice idea, but will it work?

DAVID ALTSHULER (Massachusetts Accepted Hospital): I don’t anticipate we should acquaint anyone that this will advice their health, because we absolutely accept no idea.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Geneticist David Altshuler has austere doubts about the accepted amount of this affectionate of DNA test.

DAVID ALTSHULER: It ability advice their health, it ability do annihilation to their health, and it ability aching their health.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: But how could a DNA analysis aching your health? Well, booty the case of Alzheimer’s disease. There’s a gene that works central the brain, and one adaptation of this gene can advance to Alzheimer’s ache in old age. If you attending at this SNP in your DNA and you accept a G appropriate here, there’s a able adventitious you’ll accept that alarming adaptation of the gene. If you accept two copies of the G, one on anniversary chromosome, your accident of accepting Alzheimer’s, admitting not 100 percent could be 10 times college than average.

So what would you do with account like that?

RUDOLPH E. TANZI (Massachusetts Accepted Hospital): There’s a boyhood of bodies who…it won’t bother them at all what their analysis are. They aloof alive their lives, say, “I don’t care.” But I anguish about the added ancillary of the alarm curve, those who get abiogenetic information. They attending accomplished back they get it, and again they go home and aberration out, or, in some cases even, you know, may accomplish suicide.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Alike James Watson, who deciphered the anatomy of DNA and afresh had his absolute genome sequenced, did not appetite to apperceive if he had the aerial accident adaptation of the gene alleged “ApoE4.”

Alzheimer’s expert, Rudy Tanzi can’t accusation him. Tanzi acerb discourages best bodies from testing for ApoE4.

RUDY TANZI: It needs to be emphasized that whether you accede one or two copies of ApoE4, you are not affirmed to get Alzheimer’s ache in your lifetime. So it aloof doesn’t accomplish a accomplished lot of faculty to do an E4 analysis for Alzheimer’s disease, accustomed that it’s not a reliable augur for the disease.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: This Alzheimer’s analysis is so controversial, some genomics companies won’t alike action it, but Navigenics does.

I anticipation continued and adamantine about whether I capital to apprehend my status, alike if I couldn’t do annihilation about it, and absitively to acquisition out. I’m a little worried, but I, affectionate of, anticipate that I’d rather apperceive than not know. Because I can use that advice to acclimatize how I ability alive activity forward.

Finally, the moment of accuracy arrives.

Have you apparent them yet?

ELISSA LEVIN: Well, we analysis everything.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: That’s a yes.

For about 10 diseases, Elissa Levin, Navigenics’ Director of Abiogenetic Counseling, gave me two numbers: first, an American man’s boilerplate lifetime accident of accepting a disease, and again my abiogenetic risk, based on how abounding acceptable or bad SNPs I had.

So, I’m attractive here. Obesity, 22 percent?

They say my accident of acceptable adipose is 22 percent, while the boilerplate accident for males in the citizenry is 25 percent.

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ELISSA LEVIN: So you’re aloof beneath the citizenry average.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: I’m a little beneath likely…

ELISSA LEVIN: You’re a little beneath likely, based on your genes.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: So, affection attack?

ELISSA LEVIN: That’s about 52 percent.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Fifty-two? And I’m advancing in…?

ELISSA LEVIN: At about bisected of that.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: About bisected of that.

But what about Alzheimer’s, do I accept a G in those alarming spots? Nope, the analysis said I had an A on both chromosomes.

This tells you I apparently don’t accept that gene.

ELISSA LEVIN: I accept to say this is a appealing arch profile.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: But what’s this? It looks a little high.

And so, prostate cancer: 17 percent in the accepted population, and I appear in at 20 percent.

ELISSA LEVIN: Right.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: So, remember, these SNPs cannot acquaint you for abiding if you’ll get these big accepted diseases.

DAVID ALTSHULER: Aboriginal of all, they’re alone clues. We don’t apperceive what they mean. We don’t apperceive all the mutations in those genes. We absolutely don’t apperceive how they assignment biologically. We accept no clue what they beggarly clinically. We accept no abstraction how they would affect the analysis you should take.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Alike if we could define all the genes that accord to the big accepted diseases, that still wouldn’t be enough.

We know, from belief identical twins, genes can’t be the accomplished story. Alike with the exact aforementioned DNA, one accompanying ability get cancer, the added won’t. And we still don’t apperceive why.

RUDY TANZI: For the majority of age-related diseases that, you know, claiming advantageous aging, we’re still in action of addition out the abiogenetic factors, never apperception addition out how they collaborate with the ambiance or alike what the ecology factors are. These are aboriginal days.

NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: For now, skeptics say these tests may be no added predictive than a acceptable ancestors history.

But what if we could acquisition a bargain way to read, not aloof SNPs, but the absolute genomes of abounding people, as they’re aggravating to do actuality at Harvard Medical School? If we amalgamate those with claimed histories, affectionate capacity of our habits and behaviors, could we get afterpiece to advantageous the big analgesic diseases?

DAVID ALTSHULER: The added arrangement we abduction in bodies with disease, ’til it’s complete, and altered numbers of bodies in altered populations, we will, I am absolutely confident, apprentice about ache and animal biology, and we’ll apprentice about animal history. We’re activity to apprentice about ourselves, so…knowledge itself can be challenging.

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